BBC Documentary Walking with Beasts (4-6) - Next of Kin.en.txt

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{1556}{1765}Some animals can show emotion|These unique creatures are reacting
{1735}{1835}to the death of one of their group|with what can only be described
{1822}{1862}as grief.
{1873}{1974}lt is the eldest female|who has eventually lost her fight
{1960}{2008}with malaria.
{2059}{2147}Beside her body, her three|year old orphan.
{2140}{2248}His mother was the most important|thing in his life and without her
{2235}{2392}survival in a difficult world|will become almost impossible.
{2703}{2841}This is the northern end of the|great African rift valley.
{2824}{2951}A staggering landscape created by|fractures in the continent.
{2959}{3085}This is the cradle of|evolution for mankind.
{3267}{3345}The world has been transformed|in the last few million
{3336}{3388}years by one small plant.
{3386}{3467}Where once there was forest|there are now vast tracts
{3457}{3509}of grassland.
{3554}{3678}And with grass have come new|species of grazing mammals.
{3790}{3888}At first glance you might think|you were in the 21st century
{3876}{3935}but there are important
{3930}{4037}differences The big cats are actually|of the sabre tooth variety,
{4024}{4104}although these ones only|have small sabres.
{4225}{4327}And creatures like Deinotherium might|look like elephants but they are
{4314}{4439}three times the size with tusks that|curve downwards for striping
{4423}{4474}bark off trees.
{4622}{4767}But on the edge of the forest live the|most remarkable animals of all.
{4814}{4932}A type of ape has evolved that clearly|shows the first signs of
{4918}{4971}becoming more human.
{4998}{5115}What makes them closer to us than other|apes is not their brains which
{5099}{5166}are only one third of the size,
{5192}{5279}it's not their skin which is hairy,
{5332}{5443}it's something they do that other|apes just don't.
{5442}{5618}Something that will one day lead them|to be described as a missing link.
{5657}{5748}These apes walk upright.
{5871}{6009}These are Australopithecus.|Go back 200, 000 generations and
{5991}{6079}your relatives would look|something like this.
{6073}{6178}They live in groups with complex|social structures and are also
{6166}{6244}very political animals.
{6337}{6412}This is Grey, the eldest of the group.
{6404}{6481}He is 30 years old and the top male.
{6473}{6558}But only for as long as the females|want him to be.
{6553}{6638}Females are just two-thirds of|the size of the males.
{6629}{6731}But Grey needs their support if|he wants to stay in charge.
{6786}{6875}Unfortunately, he's no|longer getting it.
{7133}{7256}With the death of the lead female,|this noisy individual called Babble
{7240}{7353}has now replaced her and|she is no f an of Grey.
{7482}{7612}Bottom of the heap is the orphaned|male called Blue.
{7616}{7726}At three years old his social skills|are as yet undeveloped.
{7716}{7845}With the death of his mother|he is becoming an outsider.
{7887}{7957}But in truth,|the whole group has problems.
{7949}{8002}Last year there were 12 of them.
{7998}{8115}As a result of malaria|they now number just eight.
{8126}{8205}This has led to tension|within the hierarchy.
{8575}{8723}A younger, larger male called Hercules|is starting to challenge Grey.
{8890}{8974}These fights are less violent|than other primates.
{8964}{9069}Baboons, for example, have large canines|and bite each other.
{9067}{9212}Australopithecus have small canines|and their fights are mostly show.
{9483}{9618}Grey has managed to put Hercules|in his place, for now at least.
{9903}{9993}One reason that our origins are|here in Africa is that
{9983}{10174}it's an ideal habitat for an upright ape|a patchwork of forest and savannah.
{10314}{10417}Unlike many of the creatures here|the Australopithecus are comfortable
{10405}{10498}in both the trees and the open spaces.
{10569}{10665}They share the water hole with|Ancylotherium, an ancient type of
{10654}{10790}animal that was once widespread|but is now only left in Africa.
{10881}{10995}Fortunately, these herbivores are|f airly harmless neighbours.
{11020}{11104}Which is more than you can|say for Deinotherium.
{11094}{11205}These are the biggest animals|in the Australopithecus world.
{11192}{11329}They are as tall as giraffes but|weigh 14 times as much.
{11496}{11586}Even young Deinotherium|are worth avoiding.
{11896}{11999}ln the weeks that follow the|males continue their squabbling.
{12189}{12253}Blue, meanwhile, sits apart.
{12246}{12334}He still has no idea how to integrate.
{12395}{12494}But this is no time for|the group to be divided.
{12824}{12905}These males are from a larger,|neighbouring group.
{12895}{12971}They are challenging|Grey for this territory.
{13281}{13394}Grey responds but his group is now|too few in number to fend off so
{13380}{13452}many full grown males.
{14613}{14729}As the group freeze|Blue is in danger of getting left behind.
{14760}{14861}With no one to look after him,|he can only struggle to catch up.
{14855}{14935}Without the group he won't survive.
{15312}{15507}Blue has kept up. But for his group|things have gone from bad to worse.
{15578}{15655}They have been pushed out of a|territory they have held for
{15646}{15696}many seasons.
{15773}{15888}Establishing themselves in|a new area won't be easy.
{17302}{17392}Walking on two legs is an|efficient way to travel and
{17382}{17498}gives the Australopithecus a higher|viewpoint than other apes.
{17488}{17565}This means predators are easier to spot.
{17556}{17662}Out here in the open they must|be especially vigilant.
{17890}{17971}The group also needs to stick together.
{17963}{18051}Eight pairs of eyes are|better than one.
{18418}{18493}lt is four days since they|left the forest.
{18490}{18594}They've been pushed north into|less f amiliar terrain.
{18592}{18744}Tired from travelling they notice|the Deinotherium too late.
{19494}{19596}This male is coming into must.|His body is pumped full of
{19584}{19648}testosterone,ready for mating.
{19642}{19747}Unfortunately, this makes him|extremely aggressive.
{19750}{19853}ln the chaos a youngster has become|separated from the group.
{19845}{19961}And now there is 14 tonnes of angry|Deinotherium between him and
{19947}{19986}his mother.
{20198}{20245}The youngster is Babble's.
{20242}{20353}His desperate calls to her are|making her blind to danger.
{20490}{20576}Babble tries to reach the youngster|but she is soon running for
{20566}{20618}her life instead.
{20898}{20968}At least Babble distracts|the Deinotherium.
{20967}{21044}But then the youngster does|the worst thing possible,
{21041}{21089}he continues to call out.
{22132}{22250}They very nearly lost another|member of the group
{22498}{22584}A few days later they have moved on|and found a place that appears
{22574}{22635}to have everything they need.
{22630}{22768}There are trees to hide in, water to|drink and more fruit than they can eat.
{22921}{23034}And there don't appear to be any|other Australopithecus around.
{23122}{23254}They only have to share the fruit|with the Ancylotherium and
{23237}{23336}they can be scared off if you know how.
{23545}{23641}Hercules has learnt to use noise to|appear more dangerous than
{23630}{23683}he really is.
{24013}{24115}The group soon start to settle|into their new surroundings.
{24160}{24235}For the first time in a few days|the youngest members of the group
{24228}{24278}are playing again.
{24293}{24361}But some things plainly haven't changed.
{24355}{24429}Blue is still on the edge of things.
{24421}{24504}Even though the other juveniles are|younger than Blue,
{24495}{24551}they ignore him.
{24743}{24854}With darkness round the corner,|it's time to prepare for evening.
{24845}{24951}Australopithecus sleep in the trees|because it is safer and make
{24939}{25066}a new nest every night by folding|down a bed of branches.
{25101}{25229}Primates were once all nocturnal|creatures but not any more.
{25211}{25343}Some have evolved great colour vision|allowing them to pick out succulent
{25327}{25358}leaves and fruit.
{25357}{25446}But this has come at the expense of|their night vision which is
{25436}{25512}now poor compared to most animals.
{25503}{25591}So for these apes|and in the future humans,
{25580}{25653}the night is a time to sleep.
{25689}{25827}Sadly, the Australopithecus will soon|find that this place is not
{25809}{25867}the paradise it first appears.
{26307}{26398}Black Eye has stolen an egg from|an ostrich nest.
{26388}{26494}Being able to carry things while on|the move is another advantage of walking
{26480}{26534}on two legs.
{26791}{26957}Before she can break into the egg...|Grey steals it from her.
{27614}{27713}Dinofelis is a killer of|Australopithecus.
{27723}{27830}These cats don't have the speed to|bring down f ast running herbivores so
{27817}{27974}specialise in slower prey that|they can kill easily and eat quickly.
{27982}{28077}Later members of the human f amily|will rise up the food chain to
{28066}{28230}become top predators but in this era|our relatives are prey.
{28651}{28756}After the attack the group are|quiet and subdued.
{28742}{28818}Black Eye's death has left a hole.
{28810}{28918}They spend a lot of their time|grooming to make new social bonds
{28905}{28967}and strengthen old ones.
{28961}{29040}lt's their equivalent of talking.
{29048}{29152}At last Blue seems to be interacting|with the group and is learning
{29139}{29197}to play the social game.
{29192}{29256}He is grooming Grey.
{29396}{29485}The group's numbers have now at least|been boosted by the arrival of
{29475}{29529}a young female.
{29525}{29621}While males stay within the same|group their whole lives,
{29610}{29713}female Australopithecus move to a|new group when they are old
{29700}{29758}enough to mate.
{29759}{29847}This prevents inbreeding.
{29838}{29905}lt is a difficult transition for her.
{29899}{30008}lt will take her some time to be|a...
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